Clark, Edward

Clark, Edward
fl. 1850s New York State, USA
American co-developer of mass-production techniques at the Singer sewing machine factory.
Born in upstate New York, where his father was a small manufacturer, Edward Clark attended college at Williams and graduated in 1831. He became a lawyer in New York City and from then on lived either in the city or on his rural estate near Cooperstown in upstate New York. After a series of share manipulations, Clark acquired a one-third interest in Isaac M. Singer's company. They soon bought out one of Singer's earlier partners, G.B.Zeiber, and in 1851, under the name of I.M.Singer \& Co., they set up a permanent sewing machine business with headquarters in New York.
The success of their firm initially rested on marketing. Clark introduced door-to-door sales-people and hire-purchase for their sewing machines in 1856 ($50 cash down, or $100 with a cash payment of $5 and $3 a month thereafter). He also trained women to demonstrate to potential customers the capabilities of the Singer sewing machine. At first their sewing machines continued to be made in the traditional way, with the parts fitted together by skilled workers through hand filing and shaping so that the parts would fit only onto one machine. This resembled European practice rather than the American system of manufacture that had been pioneered in the armouries in that country. In 1856 Singer brought out their first machine intended exclusively for home use, and at the same time manufacturing capacity was improved. Through increased sales, a new factory was built in 1858–9 on Mott Street, New York, but it soon became inadequate to meet demand.
In 1863 the Singer company was incorporated as the Singer Manufacturing Co. and began to modernize its production methods with special jigs and fixtures to help ensure uniformity. More and more specialized machinery was built for making the parts. By 1880 the factory, then at Elizabethport, New Jersey, was jammed with automatic and semi-automatic machine tools. In 1882 the factory was producing sewing machines with fully interchangeable parts that did not require hand fitting in assembly. Production rose from 810 machines in 1853 to half a million in 1880. A new family model was introduced in 1881. Clark had succeeded Singer, who died in 1875, as President of the company, but he retired in 1882 after he had seen through the change to mass production.
Further Reading
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography.
D.A.Hounshell, 1984, From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932. The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore (a thorough account of Clark's role in the development of Singer's factories).
F.B.Jewell, 1975, Veteran Sewing Machines. A Collector's Guide, Newton Abbot.

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Edward Walter Clark, Jr. — Edward Walter Clark II Born 1858 Died April 4, 1946(1946 04 04) (aged 88) Employer E. W. Clark Co. Children Edward Walter Clark III Parents …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Clark — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edward Clark. Edward C. Clark o Edward S. Clark (19 de diciembre de 1811 – 14 de octubre de 1882) fue el fundador de la compañía fabricante máquinas de coser Singer junto a su …   Wikipedia Español

  • Edward Clark (Politiker) — Edward Clark Edward Clark (* 1. April 1815 in New Orleans, Louisiana; † 4. Mai 1880 in Marshall, Texas) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratische Partei) und der achte Gouverneur des Bundesstaates Texas. Clark wurde 1815 in Louisiana als …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edward Clark (governor) — Edward Clark (April 1, 1815ndash May 4, 1880) was the 8th Governor of Texas. His term coincided with the beginning of the American Civil War.BiographyBorn in New Orleans, Clark moved to Texas in 1842 and set up a law practice. Clark served in the …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Clark (Architekt) — Edward Clark Edward Clark (* 15. August 1822 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 6. Januar 1902 in Washington D.C.) war ein US amerikanischer Architekt. Er war von 1865 bis 1902 einer der Architekten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edward Clark —  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie différentes personnes partageant un même nom. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Clark. Edward Clark peut faire référence à: Edward Clark (architecte) Edward Clark (acteur)  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edward Clark (actor) — Infobox actor name = Edward Clark imagesize = caption = birthdate = 6 May, 1878 location = Russia deathdate = 18 November, 1954 deathplace = Hollywood, California, USA yearsactive = 1913 1955 birthname = othername = homepage = academyawards =… …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Clark (Unternehmer) — Edward Clark um 1850 Edward Clark (* 19. Dezember 1811 in Athens im US Bundesstaat New York; † 14. Oktober 1882) war ein amerikanischer Rechtsanwalt, Unternehmer und Mäzen. Er war Mitbegründer des Singer Nähmaschinenunternehmens und entwickelte… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edward Clark — Edward, Ed or Edmund Clark may refer to: Ed Clark (born 1930), American politician, Libertarian presidential candidate in 1980 Ed Clark (baseball) (1863 1927), American baseball player Ed Clark (photographer) (1911 2000), Life magazine… …   Wikipedia

  • Clark (Familienname) — Clark ist ein englischer Familienname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Der Name entspricht dem neuenglischen clerk und damit in etwa dem deutschen Namen Schreiber. Varianten Clarke, Clerke Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clark Terry — in New York City, 1976 Background information Born December 14, 1920 (1920 12 14) (age 90) …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”